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Current Issue
Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology
Volume 1, Number 1, Pages 1-81 (November 2016)
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Editorial: Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 1, November 2016

K. Vijayaraghavan

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Biosorption: A treatment technique to clean-up polluted wastewater

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 2-24, November 2016

K. Vijayaraghavan, T. Bhagavathi Puspa, J. Jegan

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ABSTRACT

Biosorption is a technique that can be used for the removal of pollutants from waters, especially those that are
not easily biodegradable such as metals. A variety of biomaterials are known to bind these pollutants, including
bacteria, fungi, algae, and industrial and agricultural wastes. In this review, the biosorption abilities of various
biosorbents toward metal ions are emphasized. The properties of the biomass constituents and the role of
functional groups, such as carboxyl, amine and phosphonate, are discussed on the basis of their biosorption
potentials. The binding mechanisms, as well as the parameters influencing the passive uptake of pollutants, are
analyzed. A detailed description of isotherm and kinetic models and the importance of mechanistic modeling are
presented. A systematic comparison of literature, based on the metal binding capacity of various biomasses under
different conditions, is also provided. The problems associated with microbial biosorption are analyzed, and
suitable remedies discussed. For the continuous treatment of effluents, an up-flow packed column configuration is
suggested and the factors influencing its performance are discussed. The present review also highlights the
necessity for the examination of biosorbents within real situations, as competition between solutes and water
quality may affect the biosorption performance. Thus, this article reviews the achievements and current status
of biosorption technology, and hopes to provide insights into this research frontier.
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Prognostic and diagnostic methods of various cancers with a special focus
on the biomarker based early cancer screening

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 25-36, November 2016

Sadhasivam Subramaniam, Sivasubramanian Savitha

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ABSTRACT

An uncontrolled proliferation of body cells and subsequent spreading into the surrounding tissues is termed as
cancer. In normal metabolism, when cells undergo aging or damage they will be repaired and regenerated via
orderly cascades and  new cells are formed followed by the eradication of the dead cells. Whereas in cancer
development, it ignores the normal cell signaling and leads to abnormal cell proliferation which becomes invasive.
The as-produced extra cell mass is termed as either benign or malignant tumor. Clinically, there are more than 50
different cancers that are named based on the place of origin. The progression of cancer from the particular part
to other body parts` can be described as metastasis. General diagnostic tools for screening of cancer include:
positron emission tomography, mammography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). With
the modern techniques, cancers are usually not detected until the tumor has grown fairly large and it is already
too late for curing. Nevertheless, these techniques are not valid for the analyses of serum tumor markers like
carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and prostate specific antigen. In US alone, about
1,658,370 new cancer cases were reported in 2015, with 589,430 deaths. Hence the current focus of the
research is to develop rapid, simple and low-cost detection methods for sensitive and specific detection of early-
stage cancer. The development of early screening techniques would expect to reduce the premature deaths from
~ 3 -35% with an overall decrease in therapy cost. This review is briefly focused on the prominent cancers in men
and women with the routine and next generation screening methods to provide an insight regarding the pros and
cons of the treatment modalities.
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Influence of various stresses on defense system of giant freshwater prawn

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 37-53, November 2016
Jesu Arockiaraj, Venkatesh Kumaresan, Mukesh Kumar Chaurasia, Prasanth Bhatt, Faizal Nizam,
Gayathri Ravichandran, Rajesh Palanisamy

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ABSTRACT

Macrobrachium rosenbergii commonly called giant freshwater prawn is a widely farmed crustacean species in
freshwater. They are the largest swimming prawn with worldwide distribution. They are one of the major cultured
prawn species, known for their delicious flesh yielding them a high market value. It is an economically important
aquaculture candidate because of worldwide demand. However, their growth and reproduction is highly affected
by various physical, chemical and biological factors similar to other aquatic organisms. This review discuss about
the critical growth limiting factors as well as disease causing agents and the potential immune molecules of M.
rosenbergii that are proved to involve in preventing and/or responding to those limiting factors.
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Multi-potent nanoparticles: Synthesis, characteristics and uses in
nanobiotechnology

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 54-66, November 2016

Bharathkumar Nagaraj, Chandra S. Bhatt and Anil K. Suresh

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ABSTRACT

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology include a novel class of materials that are garning tremendous recognition to
pursuit various technological/biological advances in diverse fields of biology, mediine and electronics, due to their
unique physico-chemical properties. Properties like high surface to volume ratios and quantum confinement
effects results in particles that are remarkably different when compared to that of their bulk counterparts. 
These properties not only make them applicable for various applications in existing and emerging technologies, but
also have outstanding role in many fields that provide inspiration for their synthesis. This review attempts to put-
together a brief overview of nanotechnology, covering nanomaterial synthesis processes, nanoparticles
properties, and applications including drug and gene delivery, labeling, toxicity etc. The influence of synthesis
procedures and surface coatings and their subsequent applications is outlined, and a broad discussion on the
biomedical applications is presented.
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Endothelial dysfunction in advanced liver disease

Tamil Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 67-81, November 2016

Balasubramaniyan Vairappan

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ABSTRACT

This review describes the recent developments in the pathobiology of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in the context
of cirrhosis with portal hypertension and defines novel strategies and potential targets for therapy. ED has
prognostic implications by predicting unfavourable early hepatic events and mortality in patients with portal
hypertension and advanced liver diseases. ED characterised by an impaired bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) within
the hepatic circulation and is mainly due to decreased bioavailability of NO and accelerated degradation of NO
with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, elevated inflammatory markers also inhibit NO synthesis and
causes ED in cirrhotic liver. Therefore, improvement of NO availability in the hepatic circulation can be beneficial
for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction and associated portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.
Furthermore, therapeutic agents that are identified in increasing NO bioavailability through improvement of
hepatic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and reduction in hepatic asymmetric dimethylarginine
(ADMA), an endogenous modulator of eNOS and a key mediator of elevated intrahepatic vascular tone in cirrhosis
would be interesting therapeutic approaches in patients with endothelial dysfunction and portal hypertension
(PHT) in advanced liver diseases.
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