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Shape controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their efficacy in yield of fluorescence in Fluorescein dye molecule

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Pages 199-207, April 2017

Shiva Upadhyaya, Nikhil Bhati, Pulkit Piplani, Ravi Payasi, Manoj Verma


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ABSTRACT

Conformational variation in the intrinsic chemical structure of the polymer poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) when dissolved in different solvents changes its reducing/capping ability to a large extent. This altered reducing/capping facilitates the synthesis of diverse anisotropic size/shaped gold nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties. Sincere efforts were undertaken in correlating the nanogold optical plasmonic signatures with the corresponding TEM measurements. XRD measurements quantify not only the phase purity of the as-synthesized Au nanoparticles but also explain the shape evolution of gold nanoparticles. On interaction with the conventional dye molecules in solution, our gold nanostructures effortlessly tailor the emission behavior of dye through the well-known fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), thereby corroborating the fluorescence quenching/enhancement of the dye molecules with reference to the size/shape of the host gold nanoparticles, yielding ultra sensitive optical sensing/imaging. Herein, we systematically illustrate the FRET phenomena of the fluorescein dye molecules adsorbed on different gold nanoparticle morphologies, the results which could be extended similarly to various other relevant dye molecules as well with ease.
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Bacterial flora of Clarias gariepinus from some selected fish ponds in Port Harcourt

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Pages 208-212, April 2017

C.E. Nwankwo, N.P. Akani

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ABSTRACT

Clarias gariepinus is a popular fish species for aquaculture practices. Aquaculture has gained recent popularity due to the emphasis on fish which is considered as a source of animal protein. Currently, the bacterial infection in C. gariepinus is a major concern. The bacterial flora of C. gariepinus sourced from two (2) ponds in Port Harcourt was studied. Using the spread plate technique, the total viable bacterial load in the water, skin, gills and intestine was investigated. The mean total viable aerobic bacterial count was 0.3350±0.021 x 108 CFU/mL, 0.170±0.014 x 108 CFU/mg, 0.025±0.0071 x 108 CFU/mg and 1.71±0.071 x 108 CFU/mg, respectively for the water, skin, gills and intestine for samples obtained from pond 1. Similarly, pond 2 had 0.0075±0.00071 x 108 CFU/mL, 0.3500±0.014 x 108 CFU/mg, 1.59±0.0071 x 108 CFU/mg and 0.45±0.071 x 108 CFU/mg for the water, skin, gills and intestine, respectively. The isolated bacteria showed a wide diversity. Nine different species of bacteria were identified. They include Bacillus spp. (18.6%), Staphylococcus spp. (17.0%), Streptococcus spp. (17.0%), Proteus spp. (11.9%), Escherichia coli (10.1%), Salmonella spp. (8.5%), Serratia spp. (5.1%), Pseudomonas spp. (5.1%) and Enterobacter spp. (5.1%). These results indicate the presence of heavy infection in the examined fish, although they appeared physiologically healthy. The presence of these organisms could constitute a public health risk and calls for adequate preventive measures.
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Biodegradation potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from a crude oil polluted soil

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Pages 213-219, April 2017

Chioma Blaise Chikere, Christopher Chibueze Azubuike, Etini Ephraim Etefia

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ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play a crucial role during bioremediation of crude oil polluted environment. This is due to their ability to utilize pollutant as carbon source thus reducing the concentration of the offending pollutant. However, not all indigenous microorganisms (bacteria) in polluted environment have same pollutant degradation potential. This study was carried out to determine the biodegradation potential of indigenous hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (HUB) isolated from a crude oil polluted site in Bodo West (Gokana, Rivers State, Nigeria). Crude oil polluted soil sample was collected and analyzed for total petroleum and aromatic hydrocarbons. Culturable HUB were isolated using vapour-phase transfer method, and the isolates were further screened for crude oil degradation potential using Okono medium crude oil. The 16S rRNA segment of each HUB isolate was amplified using a universal primer set (27F and 1492R). The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the polluted soil was 3376 mg/kg. Thirty HUB were isolated, out of which 43.33% were observed to have strong crude oil biodegradation potential, whilst 36.67% and 20% were scored as intermediate and weak, respectively, with regard to degradation potential. Out of the 30 HUB isolates, 15 were successfully sequenced and all were Gram negative. The sequenced isolates covered 7 bacterial genera namely: Alcaligenes, Escherichia, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Shewanella. Members of Escherichia, Proteus, and Providencia were among those that showed strong crude oil degradation potential with optical density > 1.50, following 21 days of incubation at 37 ºC. This study showed that in a crude oil polluted site such as Bodo West, indigenous HUB have different biodegradation potentials. This varying degree of crude oil degradation potential by different HUB isolates could be explored for future bioremediation studies in the polluted site.
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Preliminary evaluation of Nigeria coastal line seaweeds for the alginate content and biochemical constituents

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Pages 220-227, April 2017

Omodele Ibraheem, Toluwase O. Komolafe, Elisha Bawa, James O. Oluwole


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ABSTRACT

Among the numerous polysaccharides embedded in seaweeds cell wall is alginate and it’s found abundantly in brown seaweeds spp. Although Nigeria coastal line is enormously blessed with seaweeds, it hasn’t been earnest for exploitation of alginate; an expensive polysaccharide used in many industrial applications. This research work therefore seeks to establish a framework towards the extraction of alginate from these seaweeds and evaluation of the biochemical compositions. Using established experimental protocols, results showed that Nigeria coastal shoreline seaweeds that yielded 13.34% is similar to other seaweeds exploited for alginate content in other countries shorelines. Furthermore, biochemical components such as carbohydrate, protein, lipid and total ash contents that gave 19%, 1.44%, 2.83% and 26%, respectively were within the ranges as observed in other seaweeds with the exception of protein content that gave a low yield. This study thus points out the exploitable potential of Nigeria coastal shoreline seaweeds and therefore cognate efforts should be geared towards mass production of alginate for various industrial applications, thus translating this supposed natural nuisance to wealth. Owe to the rich biochemical composition, these seaweeds may be used to boost quality of animal feeds, perhaps in future for human consumption; after very thorough toxicological screenings have been carried out. The seaweeds debris may further be employed as organic fertilizer and also as source of carbon for second generation bioethanol production.
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High degree Fenton-like catalytic activity of CuO/zeolite X catalyst from coal fly ash in mineralization of Indigo Carmine dye

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 2, Pages 228-237, April 2017

N.L. Subbulekshmi, E. Subramanian


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ABSTRACT

In this study, a new heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst CuO/zeolite X was developed from the waste material coal fly ash initially by zeolization followed by ion exchange with Cu2+, precipitation with NaOH and subsequent calcination. Wet catalytic degradation of Indigo carmine (IC) dye in aqueous solution was investigated over CuO/zeolite using hydrogen peroxide oxidant. Considering that individual component zeolite or CuO had very less catalytic efficiency, the combined CuO/zeolite catalyst exhibited significantly high efficiency demonstrating synergism in the activity. Special attention was paid to the effect of CuO loading, effect of H2O2 concentration, dye concentration, catalyst dosage and pH on the degradation of IC dye. Complete decolorization (100%) of IC was achieved in 180 min at its natural pH of 6.5, catalyst load of 0.5 g/L and the concentration of H2O2 and IC at 5 mL/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The catalyst retained about 80% of its initial activity even after five runs with good stability. Hence, the catalyst was highly efficient for the Fenton degradation and mineralization of Indigo carmine dye under ambient condition.
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Previous Issue
Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research
Volume 6, Number 2, Pages 199-237 (April 2017)

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