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Previous Issue
Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research
Volume 6, Number 1, Pages 1-198 (January 2017)
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Ionic Liquid EMIM acetate induced tailoring of microbially synthesized Au
nanoparticles

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 1-11, January 2017

Sneha Krishnamurthy, Sok Kim, Chul-Woong Cho, Yeoung-Sang Yun

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ABSTRACT

Though the stability of microbes makes them a potent source for nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, a large
percentage of NPs remain trapped in the biomass after the reaction. This is a major drawback and a protocol
needs to be developed for recovering the NPs from the biomass pellet. The present study focuses on the
synthesis of gold NPs (AuNPs) using marine bacteria Jeotgalibacillus sp., and examines the effects of pH and
purification of AuNPs from the bacterial matrix using ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM)
acetate. The results demonstrated that a low concentration of EMIM acetate could be used to extract small NPs
(5~50 nm). The use of 50% EMIM acetate for bacterial treatment facilitated the formation of gold nanoplatelets
(150~200 nm) from biogenic Au seeds. Visual observations and UV-Vis and transmission electron microscopy
(TEM) analyses revealed the recovery of a significant amount of AuNPs. The results demonstrated the successful
formation of Au nanoplatelets from microbially synthesized AuNPs, on treatment with 50% EMIM acetate.
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A review on biodegradation of hydrocarbon and their influence on
corrosion of carbon steel with special reference to petroleum industry

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 12-33, January 2017

Punniyakotti Parthipan, Punniyakotti Elumalai, Obulisamy P. Karthikeyan, Yen Peng Ting, Aruliah
Rajasekar

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ABSTRACT

The term microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) refers to the accelerated degradation of metals owing to the
occurrence of biofilms on their surfaces. This review compiled the mechanism of MIC by different groups of
bacteria and up-to-date technologies involved in identification of different groups of bacteria from MIC
environment, in specific to petroleum industry, has been presented. It has been estimated that MIC leads to loss
of millions of dollars by causing damage over the production, transport and storage of oil in petroleum industries
annually. Major microbes involved in MIC are sulphate reducers, iron oxidizers/reducers, manganese oxidizers,
acid producers and methanoarchaea. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon (aliphatic and aromatic) is indirectly
influence/accelerate the MIC rate in such environment. Metagenomic analysis of samples from petroleum
industries mimic the complete profile of microbial communities involved in MIC and more significantly to
understand the interactions between different communities. Therefore, it was concluded that the application of
advanced molecular microbiological methods like Polymerase chain reaction-Denaturing gradient gel
electrophoresis, Fluorescence in situ hybridization/4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole methods and Next generation
sequence are imperative tool especially (i) for the identification and subsequent elucidation of functional role of
individual microbes involved in MIC; and (ii) to develop a corrosion inhibitors/biocides to minimize the MIC induced
loss in petroleum industries.
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Water remediation using Casuarina equisetifolia cone as adsorbent for the
removal of methyl violet 2B dye using batch experiment method

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 34-42, January 2017

Muhammad Khairud Dahri, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Linda B. L. Lim

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ABSTRACT

Casuarina equisetifolia cone exhibited potential to remove methyl violet 2B dye from the aqueous solution. The
experiments were performed using batch method whereby parameters such as contact time, dosage,
temperature, pH, ionic strength and dye concentration were investigated. The kinetics of the adsorption process
was described using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Weber-Morris intraparticle diffusion models
with pseudo-second-order better described the adsorption kinetics and more than one diffusion mechanism may
be involved. The maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 63 mg/g, according to the Langmuir model.
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Antibacterial activity of the seaweeds Chaetomorpha linum and Padina
gymnospora on human bacterial pathogens

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 43-52, January 2017

X. Devanya Rosaline, S. Sakthivelkumar, S. Chitra, S. Janarthanan

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ABSTRACT

Seaweeds are important source of bioactive molecules with known beneficial effects on human health. The present
study is designed to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of two chosen marine algae namely Chaetomorpha
linum and Padina gymnospora against some human pathogenic bacteria. Our earlier study on antibacterial
screening using various solvent extracts revealed that the crude acetone extracts of the seaweeds C. linum and
P. gymnospora reacted positively against selected human bacterial pathogens. The crude acetone extracts of
these seaweeds were then fractionated by silica gel column chromatography using sequential gradient of solvent
extraction. It yielded 61 fractions and they were pooled into 9 sub-fractions based on the molecular weight
calculated using thin layer chromatography. The 9 (I to IX) sub-fractions were utilized for their antibacterial
activity against human bacterial pathogens employing disc diffusion method. The sub-fractions I to V of P.
gymnospora were revealed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains except,
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphii and Klebsiella pneumonia. However, in the
green alga C. linum, the isolated sub-fraction IV responded well to two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis
and Enterococcus faecalis) and the fraction V revealed inhibitory activity against few Gram-negative bacteria
except S. paratyphii, E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The fraction VIII responded to Gram-negative bacteria
except Salmonella paratyphii, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia. Although there are variations on the
antibacterial activity of different column sub-fractions of these two seaweeds, sub-fractions with significant
activity reported would be useful in isolation of effective antibacterial molecules.
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Remediation of direct blue 71 wastewater by salting out processes using
inorganic salt solutions and seawater

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 53-57, January 2017

Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Muhammad Khairud Dahri, Linda B. L. Lim, Lee Hoon Lim

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ABSTRACT

This study investigates an alternative simple low-cost method of removing a hazardous dye, direct blue 71 (DB71),
by changing the ionic strength of the aqueous solution (salting-out) via addition of various salt solutions of
different concentrations as well as using seawater. This led to formation of dye aggregations which can be
filtered. Investigation with inorganic salts revealed high removal efficiency with 0.6 M monovalent salts (KNO3, KCl
and NaCl), while for divalent salts (Mg(NO3)2 and CaCl2) only 0.001 M was required. High removal efficiency of 93%
was achieved with 40x diluted seawater. Scanning electron microscopy reveals thread-like structure of the
aggregated DB71.
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Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in steel processing industrial effluents
using Bacillus safensis LAU 13

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 58-63, January 2017

S.O. Ojoawo, A. Lateef, F.A. Oyeniran, O.T. Kupoluyi, O.S. Opatola, J.O. Daramola

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ABSTRACT

Industrial effluent often contains heavy metals in toxic concentrations which require remediation for
environmental safety purposes. Bioremediation can be used as an effective means of reducing the heavy
concentration in wastewater. This paper focuses on remediation by biosorption as an effective technique for
reduction in the concentration of Cu, Mn, Co, Fe, Zn, Hg, Se, Cd, Pb and Cr present in wastewater samples of a
foundry facility in Ogbomoso and a steel/wire manufacturing industry in Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria. Initial
concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater samples after digestion, were determined using atomic
absorption spectrometer (AAS). The glucose enriched wastewater samples were then subjected to bio-treatment
using Bacillus safensis LAU 13 (GenBank accession number KJ461434). The residual pellets after treatment were
subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the end of 48 h of growth, biosorption by B. safensis resulted
in 100 % Co remediation and 82.2 - 98.97 % of Mn removal. In steel rolling mill effluent, B. safensis exhibited 97.68 %
Se remediation, while removal ranging between 44 and 55 % were obtained for Cu, Fe and Zn. SEM micrographs
showed the presence of remediated metals in form of aggregates in the bacterial biomass. This study established
the biosorption technique with B. safensis LAU 13 as biosorbent as a viable method in the treatment of industrial
wastewater in terms of material availability, cost-effectiveness and absence of precipitates and slurry.
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Development of equilibrium and dynamic models for an adsorption
refrigeration system

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 64-81, January 2017

Anirban Sur, Randip K. Das

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ABSTRACT

Adsorption refrigeration systems are thermally driven systems. Solar radiation, waste energy from heat engine
can be used to power these systems. Theoretical study and simulation work of adsorption-based cooling systems
require the knowledge about the adsorption pair characteristics and capacities at different conditions of
working pressures and temperatures. After reviewing different parameters on which adsorption refrigeration
performances are dependent, simple equilibrium and dynamic models are developed. These models can be used for
generating simulation results of different combinations of adsorbate and adsorbent. Furthermore, some
coefficients and parameters which are required for solving the governing equations and have been determined
experimentally by different researchers for each combination of the adsorption pair are also included in the
paper. The present model adopts the Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption equation, which has been used by different
researchers in their study.
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In vitro phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by duck weed Lemna
polyrrhiza L. (Lemnaceae) and its combustion process as manure value

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 82-87, January 2017

M.N. Abubacker, C. Sathya

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ABSTRACT

In vitro experiments on chromium, copper, lead and zinc bioaccumulation using duck weed Lemna polyrrhiza L.
(Lemnaceae) was conducted with 5, 10 and 20 mg/100 mL concentrations for a period of 20 days. The SEM-EDX
elemental analysis was used to characterize the interaction between the metal and plant. The results revealed the
bioaccumulation of lead was high as 20.91%, followed by copper 9.71%, zinc 5.66% and chromium 1.86% was
observed. The combustion process of metal-loaded L. polyrrhiza biomass shows the total reduction of lead 1.72%,
zinc 1.47%, chromium 0.93% and copper 0.86%. The combusted biomass in the form of ash 10% + river sand passed
through 1 mm sieve, sterilized was supplemented to Brassica juncea pot culture, which revealed the healthy
growth and ensured the manure value of metal-loaded biomass.
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Response surface methodology approach for optimization of lead(II)
adsorptive removal by Spirogyra sp. biomass

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 88-95, January 2017

N. Sivarajasekar, N. Mohanraj, S. Sivamani, I. Ganesh Moorthy

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ABSTRACT

In this work, various variables that affected the lead(II) removal efficiency by thermally activated adsorbent
prepared from Spirogyra species were simultaneously optimized using the experimental design method. Preliminary
experiments showed that the effect of four variables of adsorbent dosage (0.1 - 1.0 g/L), sample pH (3 - 9), initial
concentration (50 - 100 mg/L), and temperature (25 - 45 oC) were important. Therefore, response surface
methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was performed to find a relationship between these
factors on lead(II) removal efficiency as response. The statistical parameters of the derived model were R2 =
0.9899 and F value = 10852.54. The response surface diagrams were plotted based on the defined model to show
the effects of the variables on lead(II) adsorption efficiency. Finally, non-linear optimization was carried out and
under the defined optimum conditions the predicted lead(II) removal efficiency with 95% confidence level was
found 97.6±2.3%, which is in agreement with the experimental response of 96.9±1.3%.
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Removal of heavy metals by nanoadsorbents: A review

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 96-104, January 2017

Achla Kaushal, S.K. Singh

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ABSTRACT

Discharge of heavy metals from industrial, municipal, agricultural and domestic wastewater has become a serious
threat for the ecosystem. New class of adsorbents developed during past couple of decades has helped to
overcome this growing threat. They have gained popularity due to their distinct characteristic and have shown
excellent potential in treatment of wastewater and industrial effluents to be reused for various purposes for the
sustainable development of growing society. This paper presents a scientific review of the nanoadsorbents used
in recent times in the removal of heavy metals from wastewater, highlighting their efficiency, advantages and the
mechanism involved in the removal.
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New generation of magnetic microporus material for enhancing route for
methylene blue removal from waste water

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 105-116, January 2017

M. Ruthiraan, E.C. Abdullah, N.M. Mubarak, K.R. Thines

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ABSTRACT

A statistical analysis was carried out for adsorption of methylene blue onto nickel oxide impregnated magnetic
biochar to determine the optimised condition of methylene blue dye adsorption to attain greater equilibrium
adsorption capacity. The mangosteen peel derived magnetic biochar underwent pyrolysis process at zero oxygen
environments at 800 0C for 25 min duration. The Design of Experiment (DOE) of the batch adsorption of methylene
blue dye onto magnetic biochar was investigated by interacting agitation speed, contact time and adsorbate pH.
Design Expert software version 7.0 with Central Composite Design (CCD) method was employed to obtain a
minimum number of experiments with maximised operating parameters interactions. The adsorbent dosage and
adsorbate initial concentration were fixed at 0.3 g and 50 mg/L respectively, throughout the experimental study.
The optimised condition to attain highest removal percentage of 97% was recorded at pH above 7.0, agitation
speed of 125 rpm and 30 min contact time. The adsorption isotherm was evaluated using various adsorption
isotherm models namely Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Moreover, the
effect temperature on adsorption process was investigated through thermodynamics studies at various
temperatures. The magnetic biochar produced at optimum condition possesses total BET surface area of 819.7
m2/g and pore volume of 0.137 cm3/g.
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Studies on acute toxicity of lindane (gamalin 20) exposed to Hetrobrancus
bidorsalis juveniles

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 117-122, January 2017

James Akaahan Terngu, Tereses Azua Emmanuel, Marry Olabanji Funke

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ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine the acute toxicity of lindane (gammalin 20) exposed to Heterobrancus
bidorsalis juveniles using static bioassays. The mean weight and total length of the fish samples were 2.5 g and 8.6
cm, respectively. Six groups of the experimental units were set up containing 10 fish individuals in each bowl with
20 L water capacity. Gammalin 20, organochlorine pesticide was distillated and the active ingredient lindane was
condensed and collected. The stock solution was prepared with graded concentration of 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08
and 0.10 mL/L. The fish juveniles of 10 individuals were put in each of the bowls and exposed to the different
concentration of the lindane with a control experiment where the toxicant was not introduced. The experimental
set was replicated three times. The exposed fish were observed daily and dead fish were removed immediately and
mortality was recorded for 24 and 48 h exposure period. The LC50 was determined to be 0.06 mL/L for the 24 and
48 h exposure period. The obtained result was transformed to Probit analysis which was plotted against the
graded concentration of lindane for the 24 and 48 h exposure period. The R2 values of 0.76 and 0.80 were
obtained for the 24 and 48 h respectively indicating a strong relationship of lindane with mortality. The result of
the water quality was, pH: 7.80-8.46, temperature: 28.39 - 28.42 0C, DO: 5.06 - 5.17 mg/L, conductivity : 462.00 -
482.00 μS/cm and TDS: 231.00-241.00 mg/L. The water quality parameters increase with increase in the lindane
concentration; however they were within the maximum permissible level and did not have any effect on the fish
and its death. The death of the fish may be due to the toxic potential of lindane. It was recommended through this
study that gammalin 20 is very toxic and persistent in the aquatic environment and its use should be greatly
discouraged.
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Competitive biosorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) using fungal biomass
Pycnoporus sanguineus

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 123-127, January 2017

Jéssica M. do Nascimento, Jonas Juliermerson S. dos Santos, Jorge D. de Oliveira

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ABSTRACT

The growing population and industrial advancement caused a greater environmental contamination with toxic
metals potentially affecting the soil and groundwater. Biosorption is an alternative treatment method for
wastewater containing toxic metals. This work aims to use fungal biomass (Pycnoporus sanguineus) as biosorbent
for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) ions. The results demonstrate that fungal biomass exhibited good biosorption
capacity towards studied metal ions. The modification of the biomass with NaOH and HCl influenced the
biosorption process as well as the competition existing between the metal species. The adsorption isotherm was
described using the competitive multi-element Langmuir model and the results indicated that the model fitted the
experimental data. The model confirmed the competition between metal ions. The results also indicated that it
was possible to improve the biosorption performance of fungal biomass through treatment with NaOH and HCl.
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Optimization studies on the adsorption of Malachite green from quaternary
dye mixture using modified sawdust of locust bean tree

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 128-136, January 2017

Abdulsalam A. Khadijat, Giwa A. Abdur-Rahim, F. Wewers, Arinkoola Akeem

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ABSTRACT

A novel study on optimization of biosorption of Malachite green dye from a mixture of four dyes onto acid-modified
sawdust of Parkia biglobosa was conducted. The Design of Experimental (DoE) and Response Surface (RS)
methodology, that provides detailed information from minimum number of experiment, was employed in this study
rather than the traditional one-variable-at-a-time technique which is both time consuming and cost ineffective.
The adsorbent was characterized using different methods. Four factors each from the mixture components
(malachite green, methylene blue, crystal violet and rhodamine B) and process parameters (adsorbent dose,
contact time, temperature and pH) were considered. A total of 64 duplicate batch runs were performed using
Crossed Composite design of experiment, and the results were analysed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The
model developed was predictive (standard deviation = 0.37; R2 = 0.974; adjusted R2 = 0.963 and predicted R2 =
0.945). The optimum conditions required for the adsorption (98.58 % removal) were 1.0 g dose of adsorbent at 60
oC, pH of 9.42 and contact time of 146 min.
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Role of abcisic acid in regulating the expression of EcMyb gene for drought
stress tolerance in Eleusine coracana

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 137-145, January 2017

Sarita Kumari, Shipra Sharma, Anil Kumar, Pushpa Lohani

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ABSTRACT

Abcisic acid (ABA) plays many important roles in plants, including seed germination , dormancy, stomata closure,
and adaptation to water stress. ABA has been implicated in responses to environmental stresses such as drought
and salinity. Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits agricultural crop productivity. The study was performed
to investigate the effect of drought on expression of Ecmyb gene on drought tolerant (PRM 6107) and sensitive
genotypes (PES 400) of Eleusine coracana in seedling stage and investigate whether it followed the ABA dependent
pathway. Different experiments were conducted wherein drought was induced by treatment with PEG
(polyethylene glycol) and ABA (abscisic acid) was applied in three different concentrations i.e. 25, 50 and 100 μM.
Expression of EcMyb gene was observed only in tolerant variety PRM 6107 under drought stress. It could be
thought that the expression of EcMyb transcription factor gene may be upregulating the expression of many
drought responsive genes which is providing drought tolerance to PRM 6107. In response to ABA, EcMyb gene was
expressed in both the genotypes. However, expression was strong and early i.e. after 6 h of the treatment in PRM
6107 than in PES 400. As drought is a complex phenomenon, therefore, to understand how ABA accumulates in
response to drought in both tolerant and sensitive varieties, primers were designed for NCED (9-cis epoxy
carotenoid dioxygenase) gene, an important gene in ABA synthesis pathway and co-expression of NCED and EcMyb
gene was recorded. The co-expression of NCED gene and EcMyb gene was observed only in PRM 6107 in drought
conditions since first day whereas in PES 400 a basal level expression of NCED gene was observed after 5th day.
There was no expression of EcMyb gene. It was concluded that EcMyb gene expressed only in that genotype which
can synthesise a certain level of ABA. Morphological and physiological parameters were also recorded in both the
genotypes after drought and ABA treatment. Root length increased, whereas shoot length, relative water content
(RWC) and chlorophyll content decreased with exposure of drought as well as ABA treatment. The study suggests
that EcMyb gene expresses only when ABA accumulates in plant cell and may follow ABA dependent signalling
pathway.
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Graphene based porous magnetic aerogel powder for removal of
methylene blue from waste water

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 146-150, January 2017

Rahul Sharma, R.K. Kotnala, Parveen Saini

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ABSTRACT

Graphene based porous magnetic aerogel powder (MAP) has been prepared by facile and scalable route involving
hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion containing magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles followed by
freeze drying. The formed MAP is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent material for methylene blue (MB) dyes
present in water as a deliberately added impurity. The presence of Fe3O4 phase checks the agglomerating
tendency of in-situ reduced GO (RGO) layers, simultaneously imparting magnetic character. The high porosity of
MAP allowed rapid adsorption of MB molecules from water whereas coupled magnetic character enabled easy
magnetic separation of dye sorbed MAP particles from purified water. The system was found to rapidly (in 30 s)
decolorize the MB containing water with instantaneous adsorption capacity of 130 mg/g. The adsorption
mechanism involves ultrafast electrostatic interactions between cationic dye molecules and electron density rich
oxygen functional groups present on MAP surfaces.
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Singlet oxygen generation by biopolymer functionalized gold nanoparticle
under ultraviolet and visible photo irradiation

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 151-156, January 2017

G .Vanitha Kumari, S. Asha, N. Nimrodh Ananth, T. Mathavan, M.A. Jothi Rajan

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ABSTRACT

Singlet oxygen plays an important role in photodynamic therapy of cancers, photodynamic abortion of
microorganisms and photo oxidation. Herein we exhibit a common platform to improve singlet oxygen production
via resonance coupling between surface plasmon and photosensitizers. Pectin functionalized gold nanoparticle
(AuNPs) were synthesized. The crystalline size of nanoparticles was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction
(XRD) method. The presence of pectin on the surface of gold nanoparticle as visualized from UV-Vis spectra
provided the stability and capping density of polymer on surface of AuNPs. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
spectroscopy of the sample has confirmed the presence of pectin on the surface of AuNPs. The nanoparticle size
was measured utilizing XRD, Dynamic light scattering (DLS). Singlet oxygen generation was observed by photo
luminescence spectrophotometer (PL). By adsorbing photosensitizers into pectin containing gold nanoparticles,
strong resonance coupling between the photosensitizers and the gold nanoparticle enhance the singlet oxygen
generation under UV irradiation. This work establishes a general platform to improve singlet oxygen production
and to develop a more effective and efficient hybrid metal-photosensitizer for photodynamic inactivation of
cancer cells.
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Synergism and activity enhancement in new photocatalysts derived from
zeolite, tungsten trioxide and polyaniline leading to visible light destruction
of p-nitrophenol

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 157-167, January 2017

A. Bala Nambi, J.V. Anusha, E. Subramanian

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ABSTRACT

Synthesis of single (zeolite-HX), binary (WO3/zeolite-HX, zeolite-HX/PANI) and ternary (WO3/zeolite-HX/PANI)
photocatalysts was performed involving zeolite as adsorbent, WO3 as semiconductor and polyaniline (PANI) as
visible light sensitizer. Zeolite-HX was obtained from coal fly ash by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal
treatment and the binary and ternary photocatalysts from the precursors of sodium tungstate and aniline
monomer. The synthesized catalysts were analysed by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray
diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance
spectroscopy techniques which revealed the physico-chemical characteristics and nanoparticles structures.
Photocatalytic destruction of 20 mg/L p-nitrophenol (p-NP) over the synthesized photocatalysts was investigated
with visible light irradiation (60W tungsten lamp) in the presence of H2O2. About 3-fold increase in activity from
single to binary and a 2-fold increase from binary to ternary system were observed. Among the components, the
activity enhancement was in the following order, zeolite < WO3 < PANI. Around, 20 mg/L p-NP was decolorized
through destruction over WO3/zeolite-HX/PANI within a reaction time of 3 h. Thus the present work has
developed an efficient ternary photocatalytic system involving synergism and co-activation.
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Sustainable remediation of Hg(II) from wastewater by combo humiresin-
dry cow dung powder

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 168-178, January 2017

Nisha D. Bhatt, Hemlata K. Bagla

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ABSTRACT

This research addresses an innovative application of dry cow dung powder (DCP), sustainable green biowaste, for
the efficient remediation of toxic Hg(II) ions from aqueous medium. Batch equilibration experiments have been
conducted employing radiotracer technique and the impact of various process parameters have been studied. The
result indicated that 100 mg of DCP could effectively remove 80-82% of Hg(II) (1 mg/mL) within 10 min at pH 3. The
thermodynamic parameters ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0 have been evaluated, and the values obtained were -4.242 kJ/mol, -
10.421 kJ/mol and 35.672 J/mol K, respectively. These values suggest spontaneous and exothermic process with
high affinity of Hg(II) for DCP. The pseudo- second order kinetic model proved to be the best fitting with
adsorption capacity of 16.0 mg/g and it also indicate the chemisorptive mechanism of DCP. The mechanism
involved in Hg(II) adsorption has been also supported by FTIR, EDAX and desorption studies. DCP has a great
potential in the field of wastewater treatment, which is embossed by successfully fitting in to 3A’s selection
criteria of affordability, adaptability and acceptability. Thus, DCP proves to be one of the best contenders of
green chemistry and the concept of zero waste.
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Isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of arsenic(III) adsorption onto
activated carbon

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 179-185, January 2017

Olushola S. Ayanda, Dosu Malomo, Kehinde O. Sodeinde, Oyebamiji Oyedele Oketayo, Omowumi
Nimat Abdulazeez

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ABSTRACT

Activated carbon was used as adsorbent for the removal of As(III) ions in the present study. The experiment was
carried out as a function of the initial As(III) concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, solution pH, and
temperature. The optimal percentage removal of As(III) ions achieved by the activated carbon was found to be
approximately 50.0% when 25 mL of 100 mg/L As(III) solution was contacted with 2.5668 g of activated carbon for
120 min at 120 rpm. The kinetic study showed that the experimental data fitted well with the pseudo-second
order kinetic model, while the equilibrium study showed that the adsorption of As(III) onto activated carbon
described well by the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption of As(III) onto activated carbon was exothermic with ΔS0
and ΔH0 approximately equals -83.04 J/K/mol and -23.29 kJ/mol, respectively.
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Defluoridation of water using adsorbents - A concise review

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, Pages 186-198, January 2017

N. Sivarajasekar, T. Paramasivan, S. Muthusaravanan, P. Muthukumaran, S. Sivamani

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ABSTRACT

Fluoride contamination in potable water and ground water streams due to natural and anthropogenic activities
has been known as one of the key problems worldwide imposing a serious threat to human health. Amongst the
various treatment methods available for fluoride removal, adsorption process is regarded as efficient and
practical. A general list of various inorganic, organic and natural adsorbents from literature has been compiled
and discussed. The effects of different parameters such as pH, initial fluoride concentration, temperature,
contact time, adsorbent surface charge, etc. were also discussed. This review paper incudes the entire spectrum
of adsorbents used for defl uoridation, factors affecting adsorptive defl uoridation process, and also discussed
the isotherms and kinetics used for the data interpretation.
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