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Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research
Volume 5, Number 1, Pages 1-46 (October 2016)

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Removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by adsorption onto quail eggshell: Kinetic and isothermal studies

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 1-9, October 2016

Akinhanmi Temilade Fola, Adeogun Abideen Idowu, Adegbuyi Adetutu

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ABSTRACT

Adsorbent prepared from quail eggshell was used for the removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution. The surface morphology of the adsorbent was characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium studies were subjected to two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)) and three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Hill and Khan) isotherm models. The experimental data were best fitted to all of the isotherms with correlation coefficient > 0.9. The adsorption energy (E) from the D-R isotherm was found to be 0.08 kJ/mol, which is an indication of physisorption favoured processes. Kinetic data were analysed with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Avrami and Elovich kinetic models. The pseudo first-order and Avrami models best fitted the experimental data with correlation coefficent above 0.99 with an average relative and hybrid errors less than 5%. Intraparticle diffusion model analysis showed that the adsorption process comprises of two stages (rapid and slow phases).
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Phytoremediation capability of Azolla pinnata for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 10-17, October 2016

Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Linda B. L. Lim, Lee Hoon Lim, Muhammad Khairud Dahri

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ABSTRACT

Phytoremediation potential of Azolla pinnata (AP) was investigated for the remediation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. This study involved the use of artificial neural network (ANN) as one of the mathematical tools for modelling the experimental data which showed good accuracy (R=0.867). The parameters of this study included the pH, initial dye concentration and plant weight. The optimum pH for phytoremediation of MG was in the range of 4-5, with reasonably high removal efficiencies of 81 - 84%. Reusability studies of spent AP showed good removal efficiency of 75% in the second cycle indicating its usefulness in repeated batch treatment. The growth estimation as indicated by relative frond number (RFN) showed that AP can tolerate a concentration of up to 15 mg/L MG.
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Effects of nano zero valent iron and entrapped nano zero valent iron in alginate polymer on poly aromatic hydrocarbons removal

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 18-28, October 2016

Soha A. Abdel-Gawad, Amin M. Baraka, Maha M. El-Shafei, Ahmed S. Mahmoud

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ABSTRACT

Modern countries deal with the different types and variety of industries. Large number of these industries depends on water and mainly causes water contaminations. One of these contaminants is poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study successfully used magnetic nano sorbent especially nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) and encapsulated nZVI in alginate polymer to reduce hydrocarbons contaminations in water by studying the effects of contact time, adsorbent dose, pH, stirring rate, initial PAHs concentration and temperature. Batch study was conducted and removal efficiency between 43% and 56 % was achieved for different PAHs concentrations (222, 74, and 37 µg/L) with 0.2 g of nZVI/L pH 7, stirring rate 100 rpm, 30 oC and 30 min contact time. On the other hand the encapsulated nZVI in alginate biopolymer was also studied under the same conditions. The encapsulation process was mainly depended on the quantity of the nZVI entrapped in alginate biopolymer. The quantity of nZVI used in this research was 4 g/L of alginate gel matrix. Removal efficiency between 50 and 75% was achieved for different PAHs concentrations (222, 74, and 37 µg/L) with 20 g/L Ca-alginate/nZVI, pH 7, stirring rate 100 rpm, 30 oC and 30 min contact time. The results indicated that alginate increase stability of nZVI against oxidation and increase PAHs removal efficiency.
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Effect of mouse recombinant leptin on ethanol elicited damage in the mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 29-38, October 2016

Balasubramaniyan Vairappan, Murugaiyan Gopal, Nalini Namasivayam

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ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, an anti-obesity hormone exerts potent modulatory properties both in vivo and in vitro. We have previously shown the reduction of lipotoxicity with leptin in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of leptin on ethanol induced fibrogenesis and apoptosis in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Mouse HCC cell lines were treated for 48 h with and without ethanol (500 mM) and leptin (31.2 nM), subsequently analyzed for cell proliferation, flow cytometry, biochemical and molecular studies. Ethanol exposure significantly reduced the cell viability as evidenced by 3-(4,5 dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (P<0.05). Moreover, ethanol treated cells significantly lowered DNA synthesis as evidenced by thymidine incorporation (P<0.05) and increased DNA fragmentation. Ethanol incubation also significantly increased the % of apoptotic cells (P<0.05). These results were compared with that of untreated control cell lines. Leptin co-treatment with ethanol significantly enhanced (P<0.05) cell viability and DNA synthesis, whereas significantly (P<0.05) decreased apoptotic cells and
DNA ladder formation. In addition, ethanol exposure significantly (P<0.05) increased cytokine (TNFα), reactive oxygen species (ROS), TBARS and mRNA expressions of caspase-3, procollagen type 1, MMP 2, MMP 9 and TIMP-1 compared to untreated control mouse HCC cell lines. Leptin co-administration significantly (P<0.05) down regulated the above indices when compared to ethanol alone exposed mouse HCC cell lines. Furthermore, ethanol exposure significantly (P<0.05) lowered antioxidant enzymes activities. Leptin co-administration along with ethanol significantly (P<0.05) improved antioxidant enzymes activities. Thus, our experimental data provide evidence that leptin treatment to ethanol exposed mouse HCC cell lines results in attenuating fibrogenesis and apoptosis, thereby warranting further population based mechanistic studies.
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Lignocellulosic biosorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aquous solutions: A review

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pages 39-46, October 2016

S. Rangabhashiyam, P. Balasubramanian

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ABSTRACT

Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic metal which has its sources from the industrial sectors of leather tanning, mining of chrome ore, electroplating, anodizing baths, production of steel and alloys, rinse waters, etc. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium using lignocellulosic biomass has been identified as an alternative approach to the conventional technologies. This article deals with the survey on utilization of natural and modified forms of lignocellulosic biomass for the removal of hexavalent chromium. The potential of various lignocellulosic biomasses for the hexavalent chromium removal was reported on the basis of the biosorption capacity. The methods for the preparation of the natural and modified form of lignocellulosic biomass towards hexavalent chromium removal were outlined. The study demonstrated that the waste biomass can be utilized as an economical and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions.
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