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Decolourization of textile industry dyes by Calocybe indica and Pleurotus florida mycelium

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 1-6, July 2016

Loveleen Kaur, Sapna Sahota, Apurva Bhatia, Robinka Khajuria

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ABSTRACT

Rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to manufacture and use of a large number of chemicals including dyes which may cause serious threat to health and environment. In the present study, the action of two fungal mycelium Calocybe indica and Pleurotus florida to decolorize textile industry effluents was studied and compared in order to devise an easy and economical decolourization and bioremediation strategy for the treatment of textile industry effluents. Solid state and broth culture studies were carried out in medium supplemented with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 mg/100 mL of Amido-black 10-B and Sudan black dyes to study the decolourization potential of fungi. Treatment of textile industry effluent samples was also undertaken to study the change in various physicochemical properties in presence of fungal mycelium. The results indicated that P. florida and C. indica exhibited 80.29 and 80.94% reduction of Amido black 10-B, respectively, after 14 days. On the other hand, 75.65 and 71.88% reduction in Sudan black were observed in the case of P. florida and C. indica, respectively. There was a significant decrease in conductivity, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of textile industry effluent sample while there was an increase in the pH of effluent sample after 14 days of incubation with both the fungal mycelia. The results showed that both the fungi have a promising potential for effluent decolourization and remediation. Though the use of P. florida for mycoremediation has already been undertaken by many research groups, the use of C. indica, which is an indigenous Indian mushroom, for the same purpose has not been explored before.
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Jackfruit seed as a sustainable adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine B dye

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 7-16, July 2016

Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Muhammad Khairud Dahri, Linda B. L. Lim

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ABSTRACT

Jackfruit seed (JS) was used in this study to investigate its potential as an adsorbent to remove rhodamine B (RB) dye from aqueous solution. Surface morphology and functional group analyses were carried out to characterise the adsorbent. Experimental parameters such as contact time, temperature, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, medium pH and ionic strength were studied to explore their effects on the adsorption of RB dye onto the adsorbent. Thermodynamics, kinetics and isotherm models were applied on the experimental data in order to further understand the adsorption process and mechanism. The Langmuir and Sips models best described the adsorption process with predicted maximum adsorption capacity of 26.4 and 37.9 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order model best fitted the kinetics model and thermodynamics studies revealed adsorption process is endothermic.
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A comparative study of silver nanoparticles and corona discharge for environmental and antibacterial applications

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 17-23, July 2016

Ali Akbar Ashkarran, Soureh Davoudi, Salman Ahmady-Asbchin

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ABSTRACT

We have presented a comparative study of silver nanoparticles (NPs) and corona discharge for decomposition of Eosin Y (EY) as a model dye and bactericidal activity of a series of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as representative microorganisms. Despite the fact that silver NPs demonstrate a great antibacterial activity, corona discharge process showed a significant decrease in survived bacteria in a few minutes. Furthermore, the results revealed that corona discharge at ambient air significantly enhanced degradation rate of model dye compared to silver NPs. Dye removal was about 88% after 10 min in corona discharge process compared to 36% dye removal after 2 h in the presence of silver NPs. It was suggested that corona discharge treatment, which is based on the most efficient energetic species, was more powerful than silver NPs in environmental and antibacterial applications which shown potential to kill different bacteria and degrade EY dye in less than 10 min.
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Evaluation of copper adsorption from industrial wastewater using sewage sludge ash

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 24-31, July 2016

Shakinaze T. El-Sheltawy, Maha M. El-shafei, Rasha A. Sary El-deen

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ABSTRACT

The objective of this research work is to highlight the importance of using waste material such as sewage sludge, as a starting material for adsorption of heavy metals. Sludge incineration can help to stabilize and reduce the volume of sewage sludge; and the resultant ash (SSA) has been considered as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste water. In batch process, the effect of environmental condition such as adsorbate concentration (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the removal efficiency of SSA. Also, the effects of weight ratio of SSA (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3 mg/100 mL), agitation speed (60, 150, 200 and 250 rpm), mesh size of adsorbent (60, 65 and 90 ìm), temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) and contact time (10, 20, 30, 60, 110 and 180 min), on the removal of copper ions were investigated. The optimized experimental conditions were used for the removal of copper ions from wastewater obtained from El-Sewedy cables industry. Experimental investigations indicated that at low solute concentration of 25 mg/L and high agitation speed of 250 rpm, the removal efficiency of copper ions by SSA reached 98% with the SSA dosage equal or higher than 3 g/100 mL. Adsorption isotherm studies indicated that Langmuir model described the experimental data with R2 values greater than 0.994. The study highlighted the ability of SSA for the removal of copper ions from industrial wastewater.
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Adsorption characteristics of Artocarpus odoratissimus leaf toward removal of toxic Crystal violet dye: Isotherm, thermodynamics and regeneration studies

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 32-40, July 2016

Linda B. L. Lim, Namal Priyantha, Hui Hsin Cheng, Nur Afiqah Hazirah Mohamad Zaidi

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ABSTRACT

Artocarpus odoratissimus leaf (AOL) was investigated in this study as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic crystal violet (CV) dye. Experimental data obtained from batch adsorption isotherm studies were analyzed using six isotherm models namely the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips. Based on R2 and error values, as well as comparison of experimental data with simulation plots of these various isotherm models, it was concluded that the Langmuir was the best fit isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) of 50.5 mg/g. AOL displayed resilience when tested against various medium pH. However, ionic strength influenced the ability of AOL to adsorb CV, in particular KCl showed a greater influence than KNO3. The adsorbent also showed potential to be regenerated and reused under both acid and basic treatment, maintaining high adsorption of CV even after four consecutive cycles.
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Biochar: production strategies, potential feedstocks and applications

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Pages 41-49, July 2016

K. Vijayaraghavan

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ABSTRACT

In recent years, biochar has been receiving increased research attention owing to its unique properties. Biochar is a stable carbon-rich by-product prepared from biomaterials through various heating methods. This paper provides an updated review on several aspects of biochar, including different methods of biochar production, available and alternative feedstocks and various applications of biochar. The key parameters controlling the property of biochar include type of heating method, residence time, heat transfer rate, and feedstock type. Biochar is usually produced through pyrolysis, gasification, torrefaction, flash carbonization and hydrothermal carbonization. Several types of feedstock has been proposed for biochar production and these include plant residues, wood chip, seaweeds, organic portion of municipal solid waste and animal manures. The potential biochar applications in agricultural and environmental aspects were studied as well. In addition, this review focuses on recent advances in biochar application such as its use as catalyst, fuel cells, supercapacitor and adsorbent.
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Previous Issue
Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research
Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 1-49 (July 2016)

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