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Genetic variations and phylogenetic relationship among snakehead fish, Channa Striatus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Channidae) population based on RAPD-PCR analysis

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 1-6, January 2016

Kasi Marimuthu, Kelvin Swee Chuan Wei, Rathinam Xavier, Mohammad Aminur Rahman, Aziz Arshad, Mohammed Aliyu-Paiko, Subramaniam Sreeramanan, M. Gokul Raj


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ABSTRACT

Evolutionary study is an important parameter to assess the stocks via selective breeding programs. Hence, establishing molecular markers for genetic programs to address the issues related population management studies, especially identification and discrimination is required. In this study, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) -polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genetic variations and phylogenetic relationship among population of snakehead fish, Channa striatus from four states (Perak, Penang, Kedah and Perlis) of Peninsular Malaysia were examined. Live and healthy fishes were collected at each of the sampling locations. Genomic DNA was isolated from the caudal fin of the fish and quantified. To amplify the DNA, preliminary screening was carried out with 20 decamer OPA primers, where only 3 primers (OPA-2, OPA-3, and OPA-13) were produced clear and reproducible bands and these primers were selected for the genetic variation analysis. Results showed that the genetic distance between population ranged from 0.0588 to 0.2272; and individuals within the populations were closely related at an average genetic distance of 0.18. Furthermore, dendogram construction using un-weighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) revealed the close relationship between snakehead fish sampled from Kedah and Perak states, thus indicating less variation among the populations in the north-western states of Peninsular Malaysia. The slight variation in the genetic diversity within and between populations in the north-west region of Peninsular Malaysia could be attributed to over-fishing and natural destruction of fish habitat, which may lead to inbreeding and genetic drift. Based on the obtained results it is concluded that RAPD-PCR technique is a reliable method to successfully investigate the genetic variation among fish population.
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Using six different lignocellulosic biomass materials for removal of methylene blue by biosorption

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 7-15, January 2016

D. Politi, D. Sidiras

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ABSTRACT

This study illustrates the feasibility of using lignocellulosic sources, such as agricultural residues (e.g. straws) and wood processing industry wastes (e.g. sawdust) to remove basic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) from water and wastewater. Specifically, wheat straw, chickpea straw, lentil straw, Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust, algae (Posidonia oceanica) and cork were used as absorbents for MB. The adsorption was characterised using seven adsorption models, including the Freundlich, Langmuir, Sips, Radke-Prausnitz Modified, Radke-Prausnitz, Tóth and UNILAN. The maximum adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir isotherm model was 147.1 mg/g for algae and the lowest adsorption capacity was recorded for spruce sawdust as 33.5 mg/g. The adsorption processes followed the second-order kinetic model in comparison with first order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. In addition, desorption experiments was performed using pure water as desorbent. Also the adsorbents were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.
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Use of statistical analyses to assess water quality at the Damietta branch of the Nile river, Egypt

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 16-26, January 2016

Mohamed K. Mostafa, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Robert W. Peters

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ABSTRACT

This research aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of water quality along the Damietta branch of the Nile River, Egypt. The study area extends from upstream of the Omar-Bek drain to the Damietta estuary. The water quality index (WQI) was calculated seasonally, and the results showed that the fecal coliform was the main cause for the poor water quality along the Damietta branch. The nature of correlations between the different parameters was obtained by performing the correlation matrix. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was also performed, and the results showed a significant difference between the impacts of each point source in the mass loading. The impact of each parameter in the mass loading was also found to be significantly different. The results showed that the Omar-Bek drain and the Talkha power station are the major causes of water quality degradation along the Damietta branch and that the Kafr-Al-Batek power station was found to be the main source of thermal pollution along the branch.
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Utilization of wood-industrial waste material as potential adsorbent for the removal of Zn (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous single metal solutions

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 27-36, January 2016

Boldizsár Nagy, Carmen Mânzatu, Szende Tonk, Cornelia Majdik


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ABSTRACT

In this research, we have described the ability of fir tree sawdust, a waste material derived from wood-industrial processing, for the removal of Zn (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous single metal solutions. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of significant process parameters, such as biomass quantity, initial pH, temperature and initial concentration of metals. The optimum initial pH for adsorption was 7.4 for Zn (II) and 6.4 for Cu (II). Kinetics data obtained during adsorption of both metals were best described by the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Zn (II) and Cu (II) onto sawdust were tested with four adsorption isotherm models, including the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin. The thermodynamic parameters determined for each metal indicated that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature. FTIR analysis was conducted to characterize the biosorbent and to understand which functional groups were responsible for the metal binding process.
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Purification and characterization of chitinase enzyme from Kurthia gibsonii Mb126

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 37-44, January 2016

Mini K.Paul, K.D. Mini, Jyothis Mathew


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ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to purify and characterize the chitinase enzyme from Kurthia gibsonii Mb126
. The chitinase enzyme from K. gibsonii Mb126, the chitinolytic bacterial strain, was purified through four steps including ammonium sulphate precipitation, affinity adsorption, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The chitinase was purified 16.11-fold through Sepadex G 100 gel filtration. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 10.31 U/mg proteins after purification. The purified enzyme on analysis with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R 250 gave a single band near 40 KDa indicating the homogeneity of the preparation. The enzyme was most active at pH 6.5.  The optimum temperature for the chitinase was 40 C. Impacts of various metal ions, chemicals and detergents were studied. The pH stability and thermo stability of the chitinase were also studied.  The chitinase exhibited Km and Vmax values of 11.1mg/mL and 11.12 µmoles/µg h, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on characterization of chitinase from Kurthia.
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Brown seaweed-mediated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles

Journal of Environment & Biotechnology Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pages 45-50, January 2016

T. Ashokkumar, K. Vijayaraghavan


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ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using the extracts of brown seaweed, Turbinaria ornata. The formation of gold nanoparticles was characterized using the UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The synthesized gold nanoparticles showed distinct surface plasmon peaks at 525 nm and also the color of the reaction mixture gradually changed from brown to ruby red. Comparing the FTIR spectra of seaweed extract and synthesized gold nanoparticles, significant changes were observed in phenolic groups, alkynes, amide and esters. The XRD analysis showed intense peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) Bragg's reflection based on the face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles. Elemental gold was also confirmed by the EDX analysis. The SEM images illustrate that all the gold nanoparticles were well separated and there were no aggregations. Gold nanoparticles showed spherical
morphology with average particle size of 7 - 11 nm.
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Previous Issue
Journal of Environment and Biotechnology Research
Volume 2, Number 1, Pages 1-50 (January 2016)

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